Kieseloolite Formation NUKO


Premise The formation consists of a wide variety of lithologies, all of fluvial and lacustrine origin. A succession of sedimentary cycles, from coarse-grained to fine-grained clastics can be observed. This has been used in defining a number of members and sub-members. These beds were deposited by a primeval River Rhine. The type section is in Germany Fliegel and Stoller (1913) , in a former gravel pit at Duisdorf near Bonn.
Derivatio nominis The formation has been named after the presence of oölitic chert pebbles in the gravels, derived from ancient Jurassic beds from the Lorraine to the Schwäbische Alp.
Type section Location map See figure (pdf)
  Well surface section
  Location N 50°56'04
E 06°01'02
  Depth 0 to 50 m.
  Length 50 m. along hole
  Reference A type section for the Netherlands has not yet been designated.
  Reference The type region is the area of Waubach-Brunssum-Schinveld, where deposits are exposed in clay and gravel pits.
Additional section Location map See figure (pdf)
  Well Schinveld 60D/1025 (pdf)
  Location N 50°58'42.8
E 06°00'24.0
  Depth 5 to 116.5 m
  Length 111.5 m along hole
  Well Broeksittard 60D/1033 (pdf)
  Location N 51°00'46.3
E 05°53'35.5
  Depth 6 to 190 m
  Length 184 m along hole
Definition The lower half of the formation consists predominantly of coarse-grained clastics (sand and gravel), the upper part of clay and sand. In the central part of the Roer Valley Graben, a maximum thickness of over 200 m is reached.
Upper Boundary The earliest deposits (unconformably) overlying the Kieseloölite Formation, belong to the Tegelen Formation.
Lower Boundary In the Roer Valley Graben the formation overlies beds of the Inden Formation and further to the west of the Breda Formation.
Distribution .The formation occurs in the eastern part of the province of Noord-Brabant, the province of Limburg, and in parts of eastern Gelderland and Overijssel. Laterally, the coarse-grained lower part of the formation merges into marine beds of the Breda Formation, and the finer-grained upper part into the Oosterhout Formation.
Age The formation is of Late Miocene (Susterian), early Pliocene (Brunssumian) and Late Pliocene (Reuverian) age. The named regional stages have been defined by means of palynological data.
Depositional Setting The Kieseloölite Formation has been deposited by a primeval river Rhine, which had not yet contact with the Alpine foreland. The river Meuse at that time was a tributary of the Rhine in the southwestern part of the Lower Rhine Embayment. Only during deposition of the top-most beds had the Rhine captured the then uppermost courses of the rivers Rhone and Danube, and hence extended its capture area to the Molasse region of the Alps. Deposition took place in upper-deltaic (river-floodplain) and lower-deltaic (coastal-lowland) environments. The Reuver Clay, Schinveld Sand and the Brunssum Clay/Venlo Clay Members were deposited in a lower-deltaic (coastal lowland) regime, the Waubach Sand and Gravel Member in a flood-plain environment. In particular the upper part of the latter was formed by braided-river systems, whereas in its lower part braided and meandering conditions may have alternated. However, no extended fine-grained beds were formed in a flood basin environment.
Sequence Stratigraphy Each of the mentioned members seems to comprise at least one major sequence, a flooding sequence at the base and Highstand deposits at the top. Probably, however, each of them can be divided into two subcycles. This is most clearly the case with the Waubach Sand and Gravel Member. Correlation with sequence stratigraphic units as presented in Figure I.8 are tentative only. In particular it proved difficult to establish the position and extent of hiatuses related to Lowstands. Therefore, these have been omitted from the litho-chronostratigraphic chart (Figure I.8.).
  The Formation has been subdivided into members according to variation of the prevailing lithologies in the course of time. These members are briefly mentioned here. For further details, see Doppert et al (1975) . The following units have been recognised.
  NUKO Kieseloölite Formation
  NUKOR Reuver Clay Member
  NUKOS Schinveld Sand Member
  NUKOB Brunssum Clay Member
  NUKOV Venlo Clay Member
  NUKOW Waubach Sand and Gravel Member
  The Reuver Clay Member occurs in the Roer Valley Graben and on Peel fault blocks and its lateral equivalent, the Schinveld Sand Member, in the southern part of the Roer Valley Graben, north of the Feldbiss fault. The thickness varies from about 10 m in the north (typical Reuver Clay) to about 55 m in the South (Schinveld Sand). Palynology has indicated that at the base of these members a marine ingression took place.
  The Brunssum Clay Member is present in the Roer Valley Graben and locally beyond it in the northwestern part of southern Limburg, and the Venlo Clay Member on the Venlo fault blocks in the north. In the lower part of the Brunssum Clay Member, coarse-grained, gravelly sands are intercalated (Pey Sand). The thickness amounts to 10-90 m in the Roer Valley Graben and further south to 10-30 m in the Venlo area. Brown-coal beds and black clays are abundant, especially in the upper part. Palynology indicates a marine ingression at the base of these members.
  The Waubach Sand and Gravel Member consists of essentially coarse-grained sands and gravels, rich in quartz and locally containing oölitic cherts. These are the counterparts of the “Hauptkies Serie” (Main Gravel Series) of the adjacent Lower Rhine district. Clay beds occur locally in the lower half of this member, but are nearly absent in its upper part, which contains relatively the coarsest-grained sediments.
  To the north of the Roer Valley Graben, only part of the upper Waubach Sand and Gravel Member is present (Venlo Sand). The maximum thickness of the member in the Roer Valley Graben is 109 m. At the base of the member palynology indicates the presence of a marine ingression
References See References Tertiary

Van Adrichem Boogaert, H.A. & Kouwe, W.F.P., 1993-1997. [Stratigraphic unit]. In: Stratigraphic Nomenclature of the Netherlands.
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