Hererogeneous deposit, comprising anthropogenically reworked natural sediment (e.g. fluvial or marine sand that has been applied as filling sand), as well as novel anthropogenic materials (e.g. ash from municipal solid waste incineration, steel slag, and construction and demolition waste) (Schokker et al. 2015; Dijkstra et al. 2019).
Definition of lower boundary
Definition of upper boundary
Up to 10 m in historical city centres.
Origin of name
Named after the origin of this type of ground.
Dijkstra, J.J., Comans, R.N.J., Schokker, J., Van der Meulen, M.J. 2019. The geological significance of novel anthropogenic materials: Deposits of industrial waste and by-products. Anthropocene 28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ancene.2019.100229
Schokker, J., Bakker, M., Dubelaar, W., Dambrink, R., Harting, R. 2015. 3D subsurface modelling reveals the shallow geology of Amsterdam. Netherlands Journal of Geosciences 94, pp. 399-417. https://doi.org/10.1017/njg.2015.22
TNO-GDN ([YEAR]). Made ground. In: Stratigraphic Nomenclature of the Netherlands, TNO – Geological Survey of the Netherlands. Accessed on [DATE] from http://www.dinoloket.nl/en/stratigraphic-nomenclature/made-ground.