Made ground

Lithological description

Hererogeneous deposit, comprising anthropogenically reworked natural sediment (e.g. fluvial or marine sand that has been applied as filling sand), as well as novel anthropogenic materials (e.g. ash from municipal solid waste incineration, steel slag, and construction and demolition waste) (Schokker et al. 2015; Dijkstra et al. 2019).

Depositional setting

Built environment.

Definition of lower boundary

Not yet determined.

Definition of upper boundary

Not yet determined.

Thickness indication
Up to 10 m in historical city centres.
Geographical distribution
Not yet determined.
Regional correlation
Not yet determined.
Type section
Not yet determined.
Depth (thickness) AH:
Not yet determined.
Origin of name
Named after the origin of this type of ground.
Previous name(s)
Reviewed by (date)
Jeroen Schokker (2019).
Dijkstra, J.J., Comans, R.N.J., Schokker, J., Van der Meulen, M.J. 2019. The geological significance of novel anthropogenic materials: Deposits of industrial waste and by-products. Anthropocene 28.
Schokker, J., Bakker, M., Dubelaar, W., Dambrink, R., Harting, R. 2015. 3D subsurface modelling reveals the shallow geology of Amsterdam. Netherlands Journal of Geosciences 94, pp. 399-417.
Cite as
TNO-GDN ([YEAR]). Made ground. In: Stratigraphic Nomenclature of the Netherlands, TNO – Geological Survey of the Netherlands. Accessed on [DATE] from