Naaldwijk Formation

Formal (Weerts 2003).
Lithological description

Highly variable. Generally, grey fine to medium sand, calcareous, shelly. Grey to blue silt and clay layers, organic, shelly. Common coarse lags and clayey fills. Thin discontinuous peat layers.

Depositional setting

Shoreface, nearshore, coastal dune, beach, beach ridge and washover, beach plain, tidal basin (including estuarine, lagoonal, tidal channel, channel margin, sandy tidal flat, mudflat; Westerhoff et al. 2003; Weerts 2003).

Definition of lower boundary

Regionally, unconformable contact with or gradual transition from clay or fine sand into peat (Basisveen Bed, Nieuwkoop Formation). Where this peat is absent, unconformable contact, commonly marked by a channel lag, with till (Drente Formation), marine sand and clay (Eem Formation), medium to coarser fluvial sand and gravel (Kreftenheye Formation), periglacial sand and silt (Boxtel Formation), or fluvial silty clay (Wijchen Bed, Kreftenheye Formation; Echteld Formation).

Definition of upper boundary

Commonly exposed at the surface or seabed. Locally covered by peat (Nieuwkoop Formation), fluvial sand and peaty clay (Echteld Formation), or open-marine sand (Southern Bight Formation) or mud (Urania Formation) (Rijsdijk et al. 2005).

Thickness indication
Up to about 75 m underneath high dunes and in thick channel fills.
Geographical distribution
The seaward boundary with the marine Southern Bight Formation is diffuse. The lower shoreface, formed under the influence of shoaling waves, grades into the inner shelf where wave processes have less impact on the seabed. The depth of this transition varies as a function of wave climate, and is typically between 15 and 20 m.
Regional correlation
North Sea: Elbow Formation (Oele 1969; Stoker et al. 2011), obere marine Schichten (Sindowski, 1970); UK: British Coastal Deposits Group with Fenland, Breydon, North Denes, Romney Marsh and Poole Harbour Formations (McMillan et al. 2011); GER: Küstenholozän, including intercalated peat layers (Barckhausen et al. 1977; Preuss, 1979); BEL: Vlaanderen Formation (Paepe & Baeteman 1979).
Depth (thickness) AH:
0 - 17.45 m (17.45 m) below land surface
Intercalated peat layers are part of the Nieuwkoop Formation.
Depth (thickness) AH:
0 - 17.45 m (17.45 m) below land surface
Intercalated peat layers are part of the Nieuwkoop Formation.
Depth (thickness) AH:
0 - 5.6 m (5.6 m) below land surface
Intercalated peat layers are part of the Nieuwkoop Formation.
Origin of name
Named after the village of Naaldwijk, located near The Hague.
Previous name(s)
Calais and Duinkerke (Dunkerque) Deposits, Older and Younger Beach and Dune Deposits (Westland Formation; Doppert et al. 1975).
Reviewed by (date)
Wim Dubelaar (2018), Sytze van Heteren (2019).
Barckhausen, J., Preuss, H., Streif, H.-J. 1977. Ein lithologisches Ordnungsprinzip für das Küstenholozän und seine Darstellung in Form van Profiltypen. Geologisches Jahrbuch Reihe A 44, 45-77.
Doppert, J.W.Chr., Ruegg, G.H.J., Van Staalduinen, C.J., Zagwijn, W.H., Zandstra, J.G. 1975. Formaties van het Kwartair en Boven-Tertiair in Nederland. In: Zagwijn, W.H., Van Staalduinen, C.J. (eds.): Toelichting bij geologische overzichtskaarten van Nederland. Rijks Geologische Dienst, Haarlem, 11-56.
McMillan, A.A., Hamblin, R.J.O., Merritt, J.W. 2011. A lithostratigraphical framework for onshore Quaternary and Neogene (Tertiary) superficial deposits of Great Britain and the Isle of Man. British Geological Survey Research Report, RR/10/03, 343 p.
Oele, E. 1969. The Quaternary geology of the Dutch part of the North Sea, north of the Frisian Isles. Geologie en Mijnbouw, 48(5), 467-480.
Paepe, R., Baeteman, C. 1979. The Belgian coastal plain during the Quaternary. In: Oele, E., Schüttenhelm, R.T.E., Wiggers, A.J. (eds.), The Quaternary History of the North Sea. Acta Univ. Ups. Symp. Univ. Ups. Annum Quingentesimum Celebrantis: 2, Uppsala, 143-146.
Preuss, H. 1979. Die Holozäne Entwicklung der Nordseeküste im Gebiet der östlichen Wesermarsch. Geologisches Jahrbuch Reihe A 53, 3-84.
Rijsdijk, K.F., Passchier, S., Weerts, H.J.T., Laban, C., Van Leeuwen, R.J.W., Ebbing, J.H.J. 2005. Revised Upper Cenozoic stratigraphy of the Dutch sector of the North Sea Basin: towards an integrated lithostratigraphic, seismostratigraphic and allostratigraphic approach. Netherlands Journal of Geosciences 84, 129-146.
Sindowski, H.K. 1970. Das Quartär im Untergrund der Deutschen Bucht (Nordsee). Eiszeitalter und Gegenwart: Jahrbuch der Deutschen Quartärvereinigung, Band 21, Hohenlohe’sche Buchhandlung Ferdinand Rau, Württemberg, 33-46.
Stoker, M.S., Balson, P.S., Long, D., Tappin, D.R. 2011. An overview of the lithostratigraphical framework for the Quaternary deposits on the United Kingdom continental shelf. British Geological Survey Research Report, RR/11/03, 48 p.
Weerts, H.J.T. 2003. Beschrijving lithostratigrafische eenheid. Nederlands Instituut voor Toegepaste Geowetenschappen TNO. Utrecht.
Westerhoff, W.E., Wong, Th.E., De Mulder, E.F.J. 2003. Opbouw van de ondergrond. Deel 3. In: De Mulder, E.F.J., Geluk, M.C., Ritsema, I., Westerhoff, W.E., Wong, Th.E. (eds.): De ondergrond van Nederland. Netherlands Institute of Applied Geosciences TNO - National Geological Survey, 249-352.
Cite as
TNO-GDN ([YEAR]). Naaldwijk Formation. In: Stratigraphic Nomenclature of the Netherlands, TNO – Geological Survey of the Netherlands. Accessed on [DATE] from