Venlo Bed

Formal (Westerhoff 2003).
Lithological description

Stiff brownish grey to brown, locally greenish grey clay, slightly sandy to silty. Lignite layer or lenses at the top.

Depositional setting

Fluvial (flood basin, swamp).

Definition of lower boundary

Sharp contact with fluvial sand (Kieseloolite Formation, undifferentiated).

Definition of upper boundary

Locally, sharp contact with fluvial sand and gravel (Waalre Formation).

Thickness indication
Up to about 15 m.
Geographical distribution
Limited to a small area known as Venlo Graben.
Regional correlation
North Sea: not present; UK: not present; GER: not distinguished; BEL: not distinguished.
late Miocene - Pliocene.
Type section
Not yet determined.
Depth (thickness) AH:
Not yet determined.
Origin of name
Named after the city of Venlo, on the German border in the southeastern Netherlands.
Previous name(s)
Venlo Clay (Doppert et al. 1975).
Reviewed by (date)
Wim Dubelaar (2018), Sytze van Heteren (2019).
Doppert, J.W.Chr., Ruegg, G.H.J., Van Staalduinen, C.J., Zagwijn, W.H., Zandstra, J.G. 1975. Formaties van het Kwartair en Boven-Tertiair in Nederland. In: Zagwijn, W.H., Van Staalduinen, C.J. (eds.): Toelichting bij geologische overzichtskaarten van Nederland. Rijks Geologische Dienst, Haarlem, 11-56.
Westerhoff, W.E. 2003. Beschrijving lithostratigrafische eenheid. Nederlands Instituut voor Toegepaste Geowetenschappen TNO. Utrecht.
Cite as
TNO-GDN ([YEAR]). Venlo Bed. In: Stratigraphic Nomenclature of the Netherlands, TNO – Geological Survey of the Netherlands. Accessed on [DATE] from