Basisveen Bed

Formal (Weerts & Busschers 2003).
Lithological description

Brown to black peat, compact, locally clayey and with clay layers. Subordinate yellowish to greenish brown gyttja layers (near the top).

Depositional setting

Commonly nutrient-rich (reed, sedge and woody peat), locally nutrient-poor (moss peat) marsh and swamp in lowland subject to groundwater-table rise.

Definition of lower boundary

Gradual transition (rooted horizon) to sharp contact with periglacial sand (Boxtel Formation) or fluvial silt and sand (Wijchen Member, Kreftenheye Formation, and Kreftenheye Formation, undifferentiated). Gradual transition into humic fluvial clay (Echteld Formation).

Definition of upper boundary

Gradual transition into lagoonal clay (Velsen Bed, Naaldwijk Formation) or humic fluvial clay (Echteld Formation), sharp contact with coastal sand and clay (Wormer, Walcheren, Schoorl and Zandvoort Members, Naaldwijk Formation).

Thickness indication
Up to about 2 m.
Geographical distribution
Coastal and river plains in the western and northern Netherlands, fragmentary. Not distinguished in the in the Rhine river area of the central and eastern Netherlands.
Regional correlation
North Sea: commonly included in the Elbow Formation mapped in conjunction with the British and Belgian Geological Surveys); UK: British Coastal Deposits Group with Fenland and Breydon Formations, and Brittannia Catchments Group with Clippens Peat, Blelham Peat and Flanders Moss Peat Formations (McMillan et al. 2011); GER: part of Holozäne Nordsee Formation (Brand et al. 1965; Barckhausen et al. 1977), Torfkomplex (Preuss 1979); BEL: Rotselaar Bed (Gullentops et al. 2001).
Greenlandian - Northgrippian (early to middle Holocene). Age related to vertical position relative to palaeo-groundwater level (Jelgersma 1961, 1979; Van de Plassche 1982; Kiden 1995).
Depth (thickness) AH:
6.2 - 8.1 m (1.9 m) below land surface
Origin of name
Introduced by Hageman (1969) and Doppert et al. (1975) to mark peat at greater depth, situated on top of Pleistocene deposits.
Previous name(s)
None. Originally included in the lowest part of the former Calais Member (Westland Formation).
Reviewed by (date)
Wim Dubelaar (2018), Sytze van Heteren (2019).
Barckhausen, J., Preuss, H., Streif, H.-J. 1977. Ein lithologisches Ordnungsprinzip für das Küstenholozän und seine Darstellung in Form van Profiltypen. Geologisches Jahrbuch Reihe A, 44, 45-77.
Brand, G., Hageman, B.P., Jelgersma, S., Sindowski, K.H. 1965. Die Lithostratigraphische Unterteilung des marinen Holozäns an der Nordseeküste. Geologisches Jahrbuch, 82, 365-384.
Doppert, J.W.Chr., Ruegg, G.H.J., Van Staalduinen, C.J., Zagwijn, W.H., Zandstra, J.G. 1975. Formaties van het Kwartair en Boven-Tertiair in Nederland. In: Zagwijn, W.H., Van Staalduinen, C.J. (eds.): Toelichting bij geologische overzichtskaarten van Nederland. Rijks Geologische Dienst, Haarlem, 11-56.
Gullentops, F., Bogemans, F., De Moor, G., Paulissen, E., Pissart, A. 2001. Quaternary lithostratigraphic units (Belgium). In: Bultynck, P., Dejonghe, L. (eds.), Guide to a revised lithostratigraphic scale of Belgium, Geologica Belgica, 4/1-2, 153-164.
Hageman, B.P. 1969. Toelichtingen bij de Geologische kaart van Nederland 1:50.000. Blad Goeree en Overflakkee. Geologische Stichting, Afd. Geologische Dienst, Haarlem.
Jelgersma, S. 1961. Holocene sea-level changes in the Netherlands. PhD Thesis, Leiden University.
Jelgersma, S. 1979. Sea-level changes in the North Sea basin. In: The Quaternary history of the North Sea. Symposia Universitatis Upsaliensis annum quingen-tesimum celebrantis. Almqvist och Wiksell, 238-248.
Kiden, P. 1995. Holocene relative sea-level change and crustal movement in the southwestern Netherlands. Marine Geology, 124 (1-4), 21-41.
McMillan, A.A., Hamblin, R.J.O., Merritt, J.W. 2011. A lithostratigraphical framework for onshore Quaternary and Neogene (Tertiary) superficial deposits of Great Britain and the Isle of Man. British Geological Survey Research Report, RR/10/03, 343 p.
Preuss, H. 1979. Die Holozäne Entwicklung der Nordseeküste im Gebiet der östlichen Wesermarsch. Geologisches Jahrbuch Reihe A 53, 3-84.
Van de Plassche, O. 1982. Sea-level change and water-level movements in the Netherlands during the Holocene. PhD Thesis, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, 148 p.
Weerts, H.J.T., Busschers, F.S. 2003. Beschrijving lithostratigrafische eenheid. Nederlands Instituut voor Toegepaste Geowetenschappen TNO. Utrecht.
Cite as
TNO-GDN ([YEAR]). Basisveen Bed. In: Stratigraphic Nomenclature of the Netherlands, TNO – Geological Survey of the Netherlands. Accessed on [DATE] from