Gieten Member

Formal (Bakker et al. 2003).
Lithological description

Diamict: greyish blue to brownish grey clay and loam, very sandy to very silty, gravelly (up to boulder size).

Depositional setting

Subglacial. Gravel has Scandinavian origin.

Definition of lower boundary

Sharp, unconformable contact with (gravelly) coarse fluvial sand.

Definition of upper boundary

Commonly exposed at the surface.

Thickness indication
Up to 10 m.
Geographical distribution
Northern Netherlands, northern and central part of the Dutch North Sea.
Regional correlation
North Sea: Borkum Riff Formation (defined and mapped in conjunction with the British Geological Survey; Laban 1995)); UK: part of the Wolston Glacigenic Formation (McMillan et al. 2011); GER: similar deposits in the Lower Rhine Embayment are classified as 'Grundmoräne' (Klostermann 1992; Braun & Thiermann 1981).
late Middle Pleistocene (Saalian).
B12G0020 (Gieten)
Depth (thickness) AH:
0.65 - 3.55 m (2.90 m) below land surface
Origin of name
Named after the village of Gieten, in the northeastern Netherlands.
Previous name(s)
Borkum Riff Formation.
Reviewed by (date)
Wim Dubelaar (2018), Sytze van Heteren (2019).
Bakker, M.A.J., Den Otter, C. Weerts, H.J.T. 2003. Beschrijving lithostratigrafische eenheid. Nederlands Instituut voor Toegepaste Geowetenschappen TNO. Utrecht.
Braun, F.J., Thiermann, A. 1981. Geologische Karte von Nordrhein-Westfalen 1:25.000. Erläuterungen zu Blatt 4130 Emmerich. Geologisches Landesamt Nordrhein-Westfalen, Krefeld.
Klostermann, J. 1992. Das Quartär der Niederrheinischen Bucht. Geologisches Landesamt Nordrhein-Westfalen, Krefeld, 200 p.
Laban, C. 1995. The Pleistocene glaciations in the Dutch sector of the North Sea. A synthesis of sedimentary and seismic data. PhD Thesis, University of Amsterdam, 194 p.
McMillan, A.A., Hamblin, R.J.O., Merritt, J.W. 2011. A lithostratigraphical framework for onshore Quaternary and Neogene (Tertiary) superficial deposits of Great Britain and the Isle of Man. British Geological Survey Research Report, RR/10/03, 343 p.
Cite as
TNO-GDN ([YEAR]). Gieten Member. In: Stratigraphic Nomenclature of the Netherlands, TNO – Geological Survey of the Netherlands. Accessed on [DATE] from