Landen Formation

Formal (NAM & RGD 1980). Amended (Van Adrichem Boogaert & Kouwe 1997).
Lithological description

In the southern part of the province of Noord-Brabant and in Limburg (basin fringe), the formation consists of fine-grained (105-150 µm), dark green-grey, glauconitic sand at the base, followed by light-grey marl and dark green-grey clay, progressively getting more marly and sandy upwards and in turn overlain by sandy clay with fine-grained (105-210 µm) sandy intercalations. Locally, in the north of the Province of Limburg, variegated clay and minor sand occur. Further north (more distally), the formation consists exclusively of grey to greenish grey clay with local marl intercalations (particularly in the basal part).

Depositional setting

Initially transgressive, shallow-marine, locally lagoonal. Later followed by open-marine conditions. The maximum water depth may have reached several hundred meters. The upper part of the unit consists of regressive sands, probably related to NW-SE oriented prograding deltaic lobes, which locally has led to brackish conditions.

Definition of lower boundary

Unconformably overlies the chalk of the Houthem Formation or older units. The boundary is expressed as a sharp lithologic and log break.

Definition of upper boundary

Usually the Oosteind or the De Wijk members of the Dongen Formation overlie the Liessel Member of the Landen Formation with a sharp contact seperating them. In the southern Netherlands, where sands are intercalated with the Oosteind Member in the upper part of the formation, the boundary is less evident and biostratigraphical support is needed. In particular SE of the Tilburg-Den Bosch area. Where the Dongen Formation is absent, the current succession is covered unconformably by sandy deposits of the Tongeren Formation or the Rupel Formation.

Thickness indication
Up to 300 m.
Geographical distribution
Regional correlation
UK: Montrose Group; GER: ~Landen Formation; BEL: comprises the Landen Group and in addition the underlying Formation of Heers (Orp & Gelinden members), the Hannut Formation (Lincent, Waterschei, Halen & Grandglise members), the Tienen Formation (Loksbergen & Doormaal members) and the largest part of the Opglabbeek Formation (Maasmechelen, Opoeteren and Eisden members).
middle - late Paleocene (Selandian - Thanetian).
Depth (thickness) AH:
1279 - 1425 m (146 m)
Depth (thickness) AH:
998 - 1069 m (71 m)
Origin of name
Named after the Belgian city of Landen in the Belgian province of Brabant.
Previous name(s)
Reviewed by (date)
Geert-Jan Vis (2019).
NAM & RGD 1980. Stratigraphic nomenclature of The Netherlands. Verhandelingen van het Koninklijk Nederlands Geologisch Mijnbouwkundig Genootschap 32, 77 p.
Van Adrichem Boogaert, H.A. & Kouwe, W.F.P. 1997. Stratigraphic nomenclature of The Netherlands, revision and update by RGD and NOGEPA, Section I, Tertiary. Mededelingen Rijks Geologische Dienst, 50, 1-39.
Cite as
TNO-GDN ([YEAR]). Landen Formation. In: Stratigraphic Nomenclature of the Netherlands, TNO – Geological Survey of the Netherlands. Accessed on [DATE] from